Dr. James N. Gray


Title:       Technical Fellow

                Microsoft Research

                455 Market St, Suite 1690

                San Francisco, CA. 94105

                tel: 415-778-8222

                fax: 425-706-7329

                email: Gray @ Microsoft.com



Biographical Sketch:


Dr. Gray is a specialist in database and transaction processing computer systems. At Microsoft his research focuses on applying computers to solve data-intensive scientific problems: eScience.   He has a long-standing interest in scaleable computing: building super-servers and work-group systems from commodity software and hardware.  Prior to joining Microsoft, he worked at Digital, Tandem, IBM and AT&T on database and transaction processing systems including Rdb, ACMS, NonStop SQL, Pathway, System R, SQL/DS, DB2, and IMS-Fast Path.  He is editor of the Performance Handbook for Database and Transaction Processing Systems, and co-author of Transaction Processing Concepts and Techniques.  He holds doctorates from Berkeley and honorary doctorates from Stuttgart and Paris, is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Science, and the National Academy of Science, a Fellow of the ACM, and Editor of the Morgan Kaufmann series on Data Management.  In 1998 he received the ACM Turing Award. He frequently lectures at universities, and often reviews application designs.  He has been a McKay Fellow at UC Berkeley.


Current Activities:

Research on fault-tolerant, parallel, and distributed database systems.  In particular, trying to put all the world’s scientific data online, along with tools to analyze the data.



1961-1966: UC Berkeley, Departments of Mathematics and Engineering. BS Degree in Mathematics and Engineering. 

1966: Courant Institute at New York University

1967-1969: UC Berkeley, Department of Computer Science.  PhD Degree in Computer Science.  


Employment History

1962, 1963  Co-op Student, General Dynamics Astronautics, San Diego, CA.

1964  Reader, Mathematics Department, U.C. Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

1965-1966 Research Assistant, Electronics Research Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

1966-1967 Member of Technical Staff, Bell Telephone Laboratory, Whippany, NJ.

1967-1969  Research Assistant, Dept. of Computer Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

1969-1971 IBM Post Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Computer Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

1971-1972 Research Staff Member, General Science Department, IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, NY.

1972  UNESCO Expert, Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, Romania

1972-1980 Research Staff Member, Computer Science Department, IBM Research, San Jose, CA.

1980-1990 Software Designer, Software Development Department, Tandem Computers, Cupertino, CA.

1988 (spring): Stanford University Department of Computer Science

1990 - 1994 Corporate Consulting Engineer: Digital Equipment Corporation

1994 -1995  McKay Fellow at University of California Computer Science Department

1995-     Senior Researcher, Microsoft Research, San Francisco, CA,
                promoted to Distinguished Engineer in 2000.

Professional Honors

Phi Beta Kappa

Sigma Chi

Honorary Doctorate of Natural Science, University of Stuttgart, 1990,

IBM Outstanding Innovation Award

Tandem Outstanding Performer Award         

Association for Computing Machinery

                1982: Best Systems Paper -- for paper on System R recovery manger.

                1989: Best Systems Award – for work on Relational DBs  Shared award with 8 others.

                1993 SIGMOD Data Management Software Systems Award

                1994 Elected ACM Fellow

                1994 SIGMOD best paper award

                1998 VLDB best paper award 10 years later (with Dina Bitton)

                1998 Turing Award

National Academy of Engineering: 1997 Elected to membership.

IEEE      1998 Charles Babbage Award - for High Performance Database Systems

US Geological Survey:  2000  John Wesley Powell Award (with Tom Barclay for TerraServer)

National Academy of Science: Elected to membership

American Academy of Arts And Sciences: 2001 Elected to membership

European Academy of Science: 2003 Elected to membership

University of Paris Dauphine: 2004 Honorary Doctorate

Distinguished Lecturer at:

CMU, Ga. Tech., MIT, Simon Frazer U., U Alberta, U Virginia, U Washington, U. Illinois, U. Minnesota,  U. Minnesota, U. Stuttgart, U. Wisconsin at Madison, UC Bakersfield, Berkeley, Irvine, Los Angles, Rice, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, San Diego, U. Texas, U Maryland

Keynote Speaker:

                • Italian ACM Conference 1980

                • VLDB 1981, 1985, 1991, 1998

                • German ACM Conference 1982

                • Australian ACM Conference 1983,

                • Principles of Distributed Computing 1985

                • SIGMETRICS 1987

                • Workshop on Database Machines 1989

                • International Conference on Distributed Computer Systems, 1990

                • DBexpo 92, 93, 94, 95, 96

                • RdbExpo, DECUS 92, 93, 94

                • FCRC 99

                • SIGMOD 97, 99, 04

                • NetStore 99, HPTS99,..

                •  many more


Taught many short-courses at various institutes


Professional Affiliations

Member of National Academy of Engineering

Member of National Academy of Science

Member of American Academy of Arts and Science

Member of European Academy of Science

Regent of National Library of Medicine

Fellow of Association of Computing Machinery

Former Trustee of VLDB Endowment

Former Member of National Research Council, study group on

Directions of Computer Science,

Library of Congress IT plan

Sustainability Research

               Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (1990-1999)

Former Member of Presidential Advisory Committee on Next Generation Internet, High Performance Computing, and Information Technology


Association of Computing Machines

                • Special Interest Group on Operating Systems

                • Special Interest Group on Management of Data

                • Special Interest Group on Programming Languages

                • Past Chairman of ACM Distinguished Doctoral Dissertation Award Committee

                • SIGMOD program committee (9 years)

                • SIGOPS program committee (3 years)

                • PODS program committee (2 years)

                • VLDB program committee (7 years)

                • OSDI program committee (2 years)

                • Turing Award committee (4 years, now chairman).



                • Western Area Program Committee

                • CompCon Program Committee (ten years)

• John von Neumann Award

VLDB Foundation

                • VLDB program committee (six years)

                • Former Editor in Chief of Very Large Database Journal (1990-1998)

• Former Trustee of the VLDB foundation (1990-2000)

• Organizer of CIDR and HPTS workshops

Industrial Affiliate

                • UC Berkeley

                • Stanford

                • U. Wisconsin

Federation of American Scientists

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility

Editor of Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems



Large-Scale Query and XMatch, Entering the Parallel Zone"” Maria A. Nieto-Santisteban, Aniruddha R. Thakar, Alexander S. Szalay, Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2005-169, December 2005 presented at the Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XV, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Madrid, Spain, October 2005, to appear in the ASP Conference Series.

Empirical Measurements of Disk Failure Rates and Error Rates” Jim Gray, Catharine van Ingen, MSR-TR-2005-166, December 2005

Supporting Finite Element Analysis with a Relational Database Backend; Part III: OpenDX – Where the Numbers Come Alive?”, pdf, Gerd Heber, Chris Pelkie, Andrew Dolgert, Jim Gray, David Thompson, MSR-TR-2005-151, November 2005.

“Petascale Computational Systems: Balanced Cyber-Infrastructure in a Data-Centric World ,” pdf, Gordon Bell, Jim Gray, Alex Szalay, Letter to NSF Cyberinfrastructure Directorate.,  IEEE Computer,  V. 39.1, pp 110-112, January, 2006.

“Indexing the Sphere with the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh,” pdf, Alex Szalay; Jim Gray; Gyorgy Fekete; Peter Kunszt; Peter Kukol; Ani Thakar, MSR-TR-2005-123, September 2005.

“Using Table Valued Functions in SQL Server 2005 To Implement a Spatial Data Library,” pdf, Jim Gray; Alex Szalay; Gyorgy Fekete, MSR-TR-2005-122, September 2005.

“A Measure of Transaction Processing 20 Years Later,” Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2005-57, April 2005. IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, V.28.2, pp. 3-4, June 2005

“Thousands of DebitCredit Transactions-Per-Second: Easy and Inexpensive,” pdf, Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2005-39, April 2005.

Supporting Finite Element Analysis with a Relational Database Backend Part I: There is Life beyond Files pdf, Gerd Heber, Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2005-49, April 2005.

“Batch is back: CasJobs, serving multi-TB data on the Web,” pdf, William O’Mullane, Nolan Li, Maria A. Nieto-Santisteban, Ani Thakar, Alexander S. Szalay, Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2005-19, February 2005.

“Scientific Data Management in the Coming Decade,” pdf, Jim Gray, David T. Liu, Maria A. Nieto-Santisteban, Alexander S. Szalay, Gerd Heber, David DeWitt, MSR-TR-2005-10, January 2005.

“Sequential File Programming Patterns and Performance with .NET,” pdf, Peter Kukol, Jim Gray MSR-TR-2004-136, December 2004.

“Where the Rubber Meets the Sky: Bridging the Gap between Databases and Science,” pdf, Jim Gray; Alexander S. Szalay; MSR-TR-2004-110, October 2004, IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, December 2004, Vol. 27.4, pp. 3-11.

“TerraServer Bricks – A High Availability Cluster Alternative,” pdf, Tom Barclay; Wyman Chong; Jim Gray; MSR-TR-2004-107, October 2004.

“How do you know?” pdf, chapter of Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field, National Academy Press, ISBN: 0-309-09429-1, pp. 80-88, September 2004

“When Database Systems Meet The Grid,” pdf, María A. Nieto-Santisteban; Alexander S. Szalay; Aniruddha R. Thakar; William J. O’Mullane; Jim Gray; James Annis, MSR-TR-2004-81, August 2004. Proceedings of ACM CIDR 2005, Asilomar, CA, Jan 2005

“TerraServer Cluster and SAN Experience,” pdf, Tom Barclay, Jim Gray, MSR-TR-2004-67, July 2004

“Sequential Disk IO Tests for GBps Land Speed Record,” pdf, Jim Gray; Peter Kukol, MSR-TR-2004-62, May 2004

“A Minute with Nsort on a 32P NEC Windows Itanium2 Server”, pdf, Chris Nyberg, Jim Gray, Charles Koester, April 2004.

“There Goes the Neighborhood: Relational Algebra for Spatial Data Search”, pdf, Alexander S. Szalay, Gyorgy Fekete, Wil O’Mullane, Maria A. Nieto-Santisteban, Aniruddha R. Thakar, Gerd Heber, Arnold H. Rots, MSR-TR-2004-32, April 2004

“The Revolution in Database Architecture,” pdf, Extended abstract of keynote talk at ACM SIGMOD 2004, Paris, France, June, 2004, Also MSR-TR-2004-31, March 2004

The Second Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,” with 100 other people, To appear in AJ, March 2004

“Extending the SDSS Batch Query System to the National Virtual Observatory Grid”, pdf, Maria A. Nieto-Santisteban, William O'Mullane, Jim Gray, Nolan Li, Tamas Budavari, Alexander S. Szalay, Aniruddha R. Thakar, MSR-TR-2004-12, February 2004

“Consensus on Transaction Commit”, pdf, Jim Gray, Leslie Lamport, MSR-TR-2003-96, January 2004, 32 p

“Scientific Data Federation”, pdf pdf, J. Gray, A. S. Szalay, The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, eds, Morgan Kauffman, 2003, pp 95-108.

“A Quick Look at SATA Disk Performance” pdf, T. Barclay, W. Chong, J. Gray, MSR-TR-2003-70, Oct. 2003

“Data Mining the SDSS SkyServer Database,” pdf, J. Gray, A.S. Szalay, A. Thakar, P. Kunszt, C. Stoughton, D. Slutz, J. vandenBerg Distributed Data & Structures 4: Records of the 4th International Meeting, pp 189-210 W. Litwin, G. Levy (eds), Paris France March 2002, Carleton Scientific 2003, ISBN 1-894145-13-5, also MSR-TR-2002-01, Jan. 2002

“The Lowell Database Research Self Assessment”, pdf, Serge Abiteboul; Rakesh Agrawal; Phil Bernstein; Mike Carey; Stefano Ceri; Bruce Croft; David DeWitt; Mike Franklin; Hector Garcia Molina; Dieter Gawlick; Jim Gray; Laura Haas; Alon Halevy; Joe Hellerstein; Yannis Ioannidis; Martin Kersten; Michael Pazzani; Mike Lesk; David Maier; Jeff Naughton; Hans Schek; Timos Sellis; Avi Silberschatz; Mike Stonebraker; Rick Snodgrass; Jeff Ullman; Gerhard Weikum; Jennifer Widom; Stan Zdonik, June 2003

“The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS”, pdf, A.R. Thakar, A.S. Szalay, P.Z. Kunszt, J. Gray, May 2003, Computing in Science and Engineering, V5.5,Sept 2003, IEEE Press. pp. 16-29

“ManyGrids, to fit many tastes and requirements,” pdf, Grid Midleware Spectrum, V1.1, June 2003, pp 20-27.

“A conversation with Jim Gray”, ACM Queue, V 1.4, June 2003, cached word, cached pdf,

“Distributed Computing Economics”, pdf, Computer Systems Theory, Technology, and Applications, A Tribute to Roger Needham,  A. Herbert and K. Sparck Jones eds,  Springer, 2004, pp 93-101, also  MSR-TR-2003-24, March 2003

“SQLServer Megaservers: Scalability, Availability, Manageability,” pdf, Jim Gray, Richard Waymire, Microsoft White Paper, March 2003

“Spatial Clustering of Galaxies in Large Datasets,pdf, Alexander S. Szalay, Tamás Budavari, Andrew Connolly, Jim Gray, Takahiko Matsubara, Adrian Pope and István Szapudi, SPIE Astronomy Telescopes and Instruments, 22-28 August 2002, Waikoloa, Hawaii,

“Web Services for the Virtual Observatory,pdf, Alexander S. Szalay, Tamás Budavária, Tanu Malik, Jim Gray, and Ani Thakar, SPIE Astronomy Telescopes and Instruments, 22-28 August 2002, Waikoloa, Hawaii,

“Petabyte Scale Data Mining: Dream or Reality?,pdf, Alexander S. Szalay; Jim Gray; Jan Vandenberg, SIPE Astronomy Telescopes and Instruments, 22-28 August 2002, Waikoloa, Hawaii,

“Online Scientific Data Curation, Publication, and Archiving,pdf, Jim Gray; Alexander S. Szalay; Ani R. Thakar; Christopher Stoughton; Jan vandenBerg, SPIE Astronomy Telescopes and Instruments, 22-28 August 2002, Waikoloa, Hawaii,

“The World Wide Telescope: An Archetype for Online Science,” pdf, Jim Gray; Alex Szalay, MSR TR 2002-75, pp 4, CACM, Vol. 45, No. 11, pp. 50-54, Nov. 2002

“TerraService.NET: An Introduction to Web Services,” pdf, Tom Barclay, Jim Gray, Eric Strand, Steve Ekblad, Jeffrey Richter, MSR TR 2002-53, pp 13, June 2002

“TeraScale SneakerNet: Using Inexpensive Disks for Backup, Archiving, and Data Exchange”, pdf, Jim Gray; Wyman Chong; Tom Barclay; Alex Szalay; Jan Vandenberg, pp. 1-8, May 2002

“The SDSS SkyServer – Public Access to the Sloan Digital Sky Server Data,” pdf, A. Szalay, J. Gray, A. Thakar, P. Kuntz, T. Malik, J. Raddick, C. Stoughton. J. Vandenberg, ACM SIGMOD 2002, MSR TR 2001 104.

“The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release,” C. Stoughton et. al., Astronomical Journal, 123 1: pp. 485-548 (2002)

“What's next in high-performance computing?” pdf, Bell, C.G., Gray, J., CACM, V.45(2) Feb. 2002, pp. 91-95. (MS-TR-2001-76)

“The World Wide Telescope,” pdf, Szalay, A.S., Gray, J., Science, V.293 pp. 2037-2038. 14 Sept 2001. (MS-TR-2001-77)

“Large Databases in Astronomy,” Szalay, A.S., Gray, J., Kunszt, P., Thakar, A. and Slutz, D., Mining the Sky, Proceedings of MPA/ESO/MPE workshop, Springer, pp. 99-118,(2001).

“Functionality, Availability, Agility, Manageability, Scalability -- the New Priorities of Application Design,” pdf, J. Gray, April 15, 2001, Position paper presented at HPTS 2001, Asilomar CA.

A River System, T. Meyer, J. Gray, a web site at (/river/ )

“The Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its Archive,” Szalay, A.S., Kunszt, P.Z., Thakar, A., Gray, J. and Slutz, D in Proc ADASS IX, eds. N. Manset, C. Veillet, D. Crabtree, (ASP Conference series), 216, 405 (2000).

“Digital Immortalitypdf, C.G. Bell, J. Gray, CACM 44(3): 28-31 (2001), MSR-TR-2000-101

“Computer Technology Forecast,” pdf, J. Gray, in Virtual Observatories of the Future, ASP Conf. Series, V. 225, R.J. Burnner, S.G.Djorgovski, A.S. Szalay eds., Sept 2000.

“Windows 2000 Disk IO Performance,” pdf, L. Chung, B. Worthington, R. Horst, J. Gray,  June 2000, MS-TR-2000-55

Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering,” pdf, J. Gray, P. Shenoy, MSR-TR-99-100, December 1999. Proc ICDE200, San Diego, March 1-4, 2000. IEEE press.

“Fcast Scalable Multicast File Distribution: Caching and Parameters Optimizations,” pdf, J. Gemmell, E. Schooler, J. Gray, IEEE Network, V14.1, pp. 59-68, Feb 2000.

“Scalability Terminology: Farms, Clones, Partitions, and Packs: RACS and RAPS,” pdf, B. Devlin, J. Gray, B. Laing, G. Spix, MSR-TR-99-85, December 1999

“Designing and Mining Multi-Terabyte Astronomy Archives: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey,” pdf, A. Szalay, J. Gray, P. Kunszt, A. Thakar, MS-TR-99-30, June 1999, Proc. ACM SIGMOD, June 2000, pp. 451-462.

“Fcast multicast file distribution: Tune in, download, and drop out”, doc, ps, J. Gemmell, J. Gray, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications (IMSA '99), Oct. 18-21, 1999, Nassau, Bahamas, IASTED/ACTA Press, pp. 371-377

What Next? A Dozen Information-Technology Research Goals,” pdf, J. Gray, ACM Turing Award Lecture, June 1999, MS-TR-99-50

Microsoft TerraServer: A Spatial Data Warehouse ”, pdf, T. Barclay, J. Gray, D. Slutz, MS-TR-99-29. June 1999. ACM SIGMOD2000.

DataPump, Rivers, and NT/ClusterSort, Three Distributed Applications ”, pdf, ”, Josh Coates, Jim Gray, Alessandro Forin, Joe Barrera. Aug 1998

Performance / Price Sort and PennySort ”, pdf, J. Gray, C. Nyberg, MSR-TR-98-23, April 1998

The Microsoft TerraServer ”, pdf, T. Barclay, R. Eberl, J. Gray, J. Nordlinger, G. Raghavendran, D. Slutz, G. Smith, P. Smoot, J. Hoffman, N. Robb III, H. Rossmeissl, B. Duff, G. Lee, T. Mathesmier, R.Sunne, L.A. Stivers, K. Goodman,1998, Technical Report, MSR-TR-98-17

“A Performance Study of Sequential I/O on Windows NT™ 4,” pdf, with Erik Riedel and Catharine van Ingen, USENIX Windows NT Symposium, Seattle, WA, August 3-5, 1998.

“The Design and Architecture of the Microsoft Cluster Service-- A Practical Approach to High-Availability and Scalability”, pdf, W. Vogels, D. Dumitriu, K. Birman, R. Gamache, M.;Massa, R. Short, J. Vert, J. Barrera, J. Gray, USENIX Windows NT Symposium, Seattle, WA, August 3-5, 1998.

“The Revolution Yet to Happen” pdf, C.G. Bell, J. Gray, in Beyond Calculation, The Next Fifty Years of Computing, PJ Denning, RM Metcalfe editors, Springer Verlag, NY, 1997.

“The Five-Minute Rule Ten Years Later, and Other Computer Storage Rules of Thumb”, pdf, J. Gray, G. Graefe, SIGMOD Record 26(4) 1997: pp. 63-68 MSR TR 97 33

“The Dangers of Replication and a Solution”, pdf, J. Gray, P. Helland, P. E. O'Neil, D. Shasha, SIGMOD Conf. 1996: pp.173-182 MSR-TR-96-17

“The Evolution of Data Management.” pdf, J. Gray, IEEE Computer 29(10), 1996, pp. 38-46

“Data Cube: A Relational Aggregation Operator Generalizing Group-by, Cross-Tab, and Sub Totals”, pdf, J. Gray, S. Chaudhuri, A. Bosworth, A. Layman, D. Reichart, M. Venkatrao, F. Pellow, H. Pirahesh: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 1(1), 1997, 29-53.

“Locally Served Network Computers”, pdf, J. Gray, Middle Ware Spectrum, V.11.2, June 1997.

“AlphaSort: A Cache-Sensitive Parallel External Sort”, pdf, C. Nyberg, T. Barclay, Z. Cvetanovic, J. Gray, D.B. Lomet: VLDB Journal 4(4), 1995, pp. 603-627

“Queues are Databases”, pdf, J. Gray, Proc. 7th High Performance Transaction Processing Workshop, Asilomar, CA, Sept 1995.

“Parallel Database Systems 101,” SIGMOD95, San Jose, CA, May 1995. p. 436

Beyond the Mainframe, A Survey of Information Technology, with P. Conklin, B. Demmer, S. Fuller, J. Gray, J. Lipcon, B. Laing, P. Nist, A. Nemeth, Digital Equipment Corp, Maynard MA, May 1995.

“The Advantages of Cache-Only Memory Architectures (COMA)”, with J.G. Robinson, D.C. Baxter, J. Gray, Kendall Square Research, April 1995.

“Super-Servers: Commodity Computer Clusters Pose a Software Challenge”, pdf, Databankesysteme in Buro, Technik und Wissenschaft, (Proceedings of German Database Conference, Dresden), G. Lausen (ed), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 30-48, March 1995.

“Data Cube: A Relational Aggregation Operator Generalizing Group-By, Cross-Tab, and Sub-Totals,” pdf, J. Gray, A. Bosworth, A. Layman, and H. Pirahesh. I CDE 1996. pp. 152-159.

“A Critique of SQL Isolation Levels ”, pdf, with Pat ONeil, Elizabeth Oneil, and Hal Barenson, proc. ACM SIGMOD, 1995, pp. 1-10.

“Scaleup with TP Monitors”, pdf, with J. Edwards, Byte, April 1995, pp. 123-128,

“Loading Databases Using Dataflow Parallelism” pdf, J. Gray, T. Barclay, R. Barnes, and P. Sundaresan. SIGMOD RECORD, Vol. 23. No. 4, Dec. 1994, pp. 72-83.

“EOSDIS Alternative Architecture- Final Report”, F. Davis, Wi, Farrell, J. Gray, C. R. Mechoso, R. Moore, and M. Stonebraker, #ECS-00012, UC Berkeley ERL. Sept, 1994.

“Educating the Next Generation of Information Specialists -- A framework for an Academic Program in Informatics”, NSF Informatics Task Force Report, NFS press. May 1994.

“Desktop Batch Processing”, pdf, J. Gray, C. Nyberg, COMPCON 94, IEEE Press, Feb. 1994.

“Benchmarks Help With Server Platform Buys”, J. Gray, J. Johnson, Software Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 14, Sept. 1993, pp. 93-100.

Quickly Generating Billion-Record Synthetic Databases ”, pdf, J. Gray, P. Sundaresan, S. Englert, K. Baclawski, P.J. Weinberger, SIGMOD 94.pp. 243-252, Minneapolis, May 1994

AlphaSort - A RISC-machine Sort ”, pdf, with C. Nyberg, J. Gray, Z. Cvetanovic, D. Lomet, SIGMOD 94., pp. 233-242, Minneapolis, May 1994

The Evolution of TPC Benchmarks: Why TPC-A and TPC-B are Obsolete”, pdf, C. Levine, J. Gray, S. Kiss, W. Kohler, Open OLTP Report, Vol. 4, No 7, Nov., 1993. pp. 2-14. Standish Group, Yarmouth, MA.

The Benchmark Handbook for Database and Transaction Processing Systems (J. Gray, editor)-- 2nd edition. with D. Bitton, R. Cattell, D. DeWitt, P.Oneil, O. Serlin, T. Sawyer, C. Trybyfill. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1993.

Parallel Database Systems: the Future of High Performance Database Systems ”, pdf, D. DeWitt, J. Gray, CACM, Vol. 35, No. 6, June 1992.

Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering Committee to Assess The Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, J. Hartmanis (chair). National Academy Press, 1992.

Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, J. Gray, A. Reuter, 1992 by Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA.

A Comparison of SQL Access and DRDA”, pdf, J. Gray, S. Newman. Database Programming and Design April 1991, Vol. 4 No 6, pp. 46-54.

High Availability Computing Systems”, pdf, with Dan Sieworek, IEEE Computer, Vol. 39, No 8, pp 39-48, September 1991.

Online Transaction Processing Systems, E. Watanabe, J. Gray, in Japanese., McGraw Hill, Tokyo. 1991.

Super-Servers: Commodity Computer Clusters Pose a Software Challenge”, pdf, SFSC TR 91.2, Digital Equipment Corp., San Francisco, Dec. 1991.

Review of Client Server Programming with OS/2 EE by Orfali and Harkey. Database Programming and Design, Vol. 4, No. 9, Sept. 1991, pp. 73-74

The Benchmark Handbook for Database and Transaction Processing Systems (J. Gray, editor). with D. Bitton, R. Cattell, D. DeWitt, P. Oneil, O. Serlin, T. Sawyer, Carolyn Trybyfill. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1991.

A Census of Tandem System Availability, 1985-1990.pdf, IEEE Trans. on Reliability. October 1990, Vol. 39, No 4, pp. 409-418.

The NonStop SQL Release 2 Benchmark”, pdf, J. Gray, S. Englert, T. Kocher, and P.Shah, Tandem Systems Review, V.6.2, Oct 1990, pp. 24-35.

“Performance Benefits of Parallel Query Execution and Mixed Workload Support in NonStop SQL Release 2”, J. Gray, S. Englert, Tandem Systems Review, V.6.2, Oct 1990, pp. 12-23.

“Report on Fourth ACM SIGOPS European Workshop” With Ozalp Babaoglu, ACM Operating Systems Review, Vol. 25, #2, Jan. 1991. pp 19-43.

“A Comparison of the Byzantine Agreement Problem and the Transaction Commit Problem” pdf, J. Gray, Fault Tolerant Distributed Computing, B. Simons & A. Spector (eds), Springer Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science #448, 1990, pp. 10-17.

“Tandem’s Approach to Fault Tolerance”, with many others. To appear as a chapter in Dan Siewiorek’s revised book on Dependable Computers.

“Open SQL” J. Gray, D. Slutz, R. Yendluri. Database Forum, May 1990.

Adaptive Hash Join for a Multiprogramming Environment ”, or word, or pdf, H, Jorge Zeller, J. Gray, Proc 16th VLDB, 1990.

Parity Striping of Disc Arrays: Low-Cost Reliable Storage with Acceptable Throughput”, J. Gray, B. Horst, M. Walker, Proc 16th VLDB, 1990.

“Ultra-dependable Architectures”, Dan Siewiorek, J. Gray, M. Hsiao, D. Rennels, and T. Williams, in Annual Review of Computer Science, V.4, 1989-1990. pp: 503-516.

FastSort: A Distributed Single-Input Single-Output External Sort,” or pdf, J. Gray, B. Salzberg, A. Tsukerman, S. Uren, and B. Vaughn, in Proc. of 1990 ACM SIGMOD Conf, May 1990, pp. 94-101.

A Benchmark of NonStop SQL Release 2 Demonstrating Near-Linear Speedup and Scaleup on Large Databases”, J. Gray, S. Englert, T. Kocher, and P. Shah, Tandem Technical Report TR 89.4, May 1989, Proceedings Sigmetrics, 1990

The Cost of Messages”, or pdf, J. Gray, Proc. of 7th CAM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, ACM Press. Aug. 1988, pp 1-7

Disc Shadowing”, or pdf, J. Gray, D. Bitton. Proc. 14Th VLDB 88, Morgan Kaufmann, Aug. 1988, pp 331-338.

Transparency in Its Place” or pdf, J. Gray, UNIX Review, V 5.5, May 1987, pp. 42-53.

“A Benchmark of NonStop SQL on the DebitCredit Transaction,” with the Tandem Performance Group, ACM SIGMOD 88, ACM Press. June. 1988, pp 337-341.

NonStop SQL, A Distributed High Performance, High Availability Implementation of SQL ”, or pdf, the Tandem Database Group, Proceedings of 2n High Performance Transaction Processing Workshop, D. Gawlick Ed., Springer Verlag, 1989.

NonStop FastSort-- An External Sort Using Parallel Processing,” or pdf, J. Gray, A. Tsukerman, Tandem Systems Review, V 4.1, March 1987, pp. 57-72.

Fault Tolerance in Tandem Computer Systems”, or pdf, J. Bartlett, J. Gray, Bob Horst, The Evolution of Fault-Tolerant Computing, A. Avizienis ed, Springer Verlag, 1987.

The Five Minute Rule for Trading Memory for Disc Accesses, and the 10 Byte Rule for Trading Memory for CPU Time” or pdf, J. Gray, F. Putzolu, Proceedings of SIGMOD 87, June 1987, pp. 395-398.

Why Do Computers Stop and What Can We Do About It”, or pdf, J. Gray, 6th International Conference on Reliability and Distributed Databases, June 1987

Distributed Systems: Four Case Studies” or pdf, J. Gray, M. Anderton IEEE Transactions on Computers. and Tandem Technical Report 85.5.

Fault Tolerant Systems, with Eiichi Watanabe, in Japanese, McGraw Hill, Tokyo. 1991.

An Approach to Distributed Computing” or pdf, J. Gray, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, V 12.6, June 1986. pp 684-689.

A Measure of Transaction Processing Power ” or pdf, With 25 others Datamation, V 31.7, April 1985, pp 112-118.

One Thousand Transactions Per Second” or pdf, J. Gray, B. Good, P.W. Homan, D.E. Gawlick, H. Sammer, IEEE Compcon Proceedings, San Francisco, IEEE Press, 1985.

“Solving the Problems of Distributed Databases” J. Gray, S. Metz, Data Communications, Oct 1983, pp. 183-192.

“Transactions and Consistency in Distributed Database Systems”, J. Gray, I.L. Traiger, C.A. Galtaire, and B.G. Lindsay, ACM TODS, V. 7.3, 1982, pp. 323-342.

“A Position Paper on Distributed Database Systems”. J. Gray, Proceedings of German ACM Conference, Nuremburg, 1982.

“The Recovery Manager of a Data Management System” J. Gray, P.R. McJones, M.W. Blasgen, R.A. Lorie, T.G. Price, G.R Putzolu, I.L. Traiger, ACM Computing Surveys, V. 13.2, 1982, pp. 223-242.

“An End User Approach to Application Design”, or pdf, J. Gray, Proceedings of NATO Summer School on Database Design, Lisbon Portugal, Also, Tandem TR 81.1.

The Transaction Concept, Virtues And Limitations” or pdf, J. Gray, Proceedings of 7th VLDB, Cannes, France, 1981, pp. 144-154.

“System R: An Architectural Overview”, M.M. Astrahan, M.W. Blasgen, D.D. Chamberlin, J. Gray, P.P. Griffiths, W.F. King, R.A. Lorie, P.R. McJones, J.W. Mehl, G.F. Putzolu, D.R. Slutz, H.R. Strong, P. Tiberio, I.L. Traiger, and B. Yost, IBM Systems Journal, V. 20.1, 1981.

“A Strawman Analysis of Deadlock Probability,” J. Gray, P.W. Homan, H.A. Korth, R.L. Obermarck, IBM RJ 2131, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA., 95193, 1981. pp. 1-18.

“A Transaction Model” J. Gray, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, V. 85, Springer Verlag, 1980, pp. 282-298.

MIP Envy”, or pdf, J. Gray, IBM Research Memo, Sept. 1980, (that created quite a mail-storm).

A Critique of IBM's CS Research”, or pdf, J. Gray, IBM Research Memo, Sept. 1980, (related to the MIP Envy).

“A Discussion of Distributed Systems” J. Gray, Proceedings of 1979 Italian ACM Conference, Bari, Italy, 1979. pp 204-211.

“A History and Evaluation of System R”, M.M. Astrahan, M.W. Blasgen, D.D. Chamberlin, K.P Eswaran, J. Gray, P.P. Griffiths, W.F. King, B.G. Lindsay, R.A. Lorie, P.R. McJones, J.W. Mehl, T.G. Price, G.F. Putzolu, D.R. Slutz, H.R. Strong, P. Tiberio, I.L. Traiger, and B. Yost, IBM RJ IBM RJ 2843, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA., 95193, 1979. 38 pages.

“An Overview of System R -- a Relational Database System”, M.M. Astrahan, M.W. Blasgen, D.D. Chamberlin, J. Gray, P.P. Griffiths, W.F. King, R.A. Lorie, P.R. McJones, J.W. Mehl, G.F. Putzolu, D.R. Slutz, H.R. Strong, P. Tiberio, I.L. Traiger, and B. Yost, IEEE Computer, IEEE Press, V 13.4, 1979, pp 43-55.

“The Convoy Phenomenon” J. Gray, M.W. Blasgen, M.A. Mitoma, and T.G. Price, ACM Operating Systems Review, V. 13.2, 1979, pp. 20-28.

“Using Photo-Composer Equipment from San Jose Research VM System” J. Gray, J.N. King, IBM RJ 2594, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA., 95193, 1979. 21 pages.

Notes on Database Operating Systems ”, or pdf, J. Gray, Operating Systems, an Advanced Course, Bayer et. al. eds., Lecture notes in Computer Science 60, Springer-Verlag, 1978, pp. 393-481.

“Database System Authorization”, J. Gray, D.D. Chamberlin, P.P. Griffiths, I.L. Traiger, B.W. Wade, chapter in Foundations of Secure Computing, Demillo et. al. eds., Academic Press, 1978, pp. 39-55.

“The Notions of Consistency and Predicate Locks” K.P. Eswaran, J. Gray, R.A. Lorie, I.L. Traiger, CACM V. 9.11, 1976, pp. 624-633.

“System R: a Relational Approach to Database Management”, M.M. Astrahan, M.W. Blasgen, D.D. Chamberlin, K.P Eswaran, J. Gray, P.P. Griffiths, W.F. King, R.A. Lorie, P.R. McJones, J.W. Mehl, G.F. Putzolu, I.L. Traiger, and V. Watson, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, V 1.2, 1976, pp 97-137.

“Granularity of Locks and Degrees of Consistency”, J. Gray, R. Lorie, G.F. Putzolu, and I.L. Traiger, Modeling in Data Base Management Systems, G.M. Nijssen ed., North Holland Pub., 1976, pp. 364-394.

“Granularity of Locks in a Shared Database” J. Gray, R. Lorie, G.F. Putzolu, Proceedings of International Conference on Very Large Databases, ACM Conference Record, 1975. pp. 231-248.

“Views, Authorization and Locking” J. Gray, D.D. Chamberlin, I.L. Traiger, National Computer Conference Proceedings, Spartan Press, 1975, pp. 425-430.

“A Shared Segment and Interprocess Communication Facility for VM/370”, J. Gray, V. Watson, IBM RJ 1579, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA. 95193, 1975. pp. 1-39.

“The Notions of Consistency and Predicate Locks”, K.P. Eswaran, J. Gray, R.A. Lorie, I.L. Traiger, IBM RJ 1487, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA., 95193, 1974., CACM V19.11, Nov 1976, pp 624-632.

“The Art of Designing in the Presence of Imperfection: A Study of Methodologies for Reliability and Availability”, J. Gray, R.M. Goldwin, A.P. Mullerey, G.H. Okimoto, and R.D. Villani. IBM Research Report RC 4818, April, 1974.

“Locking in Decentralized Computer Systems” J. Gray, IBM RJ 1346, IBM Research Center, 5600 Cottle Rd., San Jose, CA., 95193, 1974. pp. 1-59.

“Canonical Precedence Schemes” J. Gray, M.A. Harrison, Journal of ACM. V. 20.2, 1973, pp. 214-234.

“On the Covering and Reduction Problem for Context Free Grammars” J. Gray, M.A. Harrison, Journal of ACM. V. 19.4, 1972, pp. 675-698.

“The Control Structure of an Operating System” J. Gray, B.W. Lampson, B.G. Lindsay, and H.E. Sturgis, IBM RC 3949, IBM Research Center, P.O. 218, Yorktown Hts. N.Y., 10598, 1972. 72 pages.

“A Fortran Version of Forrester's Model of an Urban Area”, J. Gray, Urban Dynamics, Extensions and Reflections, Ken Chan ed., San Francisco press, San Francisco, California, 1972 pp. 214-253.

“Further Critique of Forrester's Model of an Urban Area”, J. Gray, Urban Dynamics, Extensions and Reflections, Ken Chan ed., San Francisco press, San Francisco, California, 1972, pp. 153-168.

“A Critique of Forrester's Model of an Urban Area” J. Gray, D.E. Pessel and P. Variaya, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, V. 2.2, 1972, pp. 139-144.

“Locking” J. Gray, Proc. Woods Hole Conference on Concurrent Systems and Parallel Computation, J. Dennis Ed., ACM 1970 Conference Record. 1970. pp. 169-176

“Precedence Parsers for Programming Languages” J. Gray, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley California. 1969. pp. 1-114.

“Infinite Linear Sequential Machines” H. Gallaire, J. Gray, M.A. Harrison, and G.T. Herman, Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences, V. 2.2, 1968, pp. 381-419.

“Two Way Push Down Automata” J. Gray, M.A. Harrison and O.H. Ibera, Information and Control, V. 11.1, 1967, pp. 30-70.

“The Theory of Sequential Relations” J. Gray, M.A. Harrison, Information and Control, V. 9.2, 1966, pp.435-468.